Glossary

Arbitration

Glossary

A system of alternative dispute resolution (ie resolution of a dispute otherwise than by a court) in which the disputing parties refer the matter to an arbitrator or a tribunal of arbitrators (usually 3) selected by a process determined in the arbitration agreement. An agreement to arbitrate (or arbitration clause) is often included in a Continue reading

Catchwords

Glossary

Also known as Keywords. Descriptive words or phrases used to categorise the subject matter of a case for indexing purposes. Usually presented at the top of the report in the form of a main, second and third heading, which may be followed by additional words or phrases, separated by dashes, describing the critical issues in Continue reading

Conflicts of laws

Glossary

Where there is a dispute over whether a case should be litigated in one jurisdiction or another, there is said to be a conflict of laws. Continue reading

Consolidated Index

Glossary

A printed index and digest of case names, subject matter, and judicial considerations of other cases and legislation, published by ICLR in cumulative volumes of up to five or ten years coverage. See Products for purchasing details. Continue reading

Crown

Glossary

Alternative name for the prosecution in criminal cases brought in the name of the Queen or King, under the title Regina or Rex. Thus a case cited as R v Brown may be spoken about orally as “The Crown against Brown”. Most public criminal prosecutions in England and Wales are brought by the Crown Prosecution Continue reading

Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)

Glossary

Independent public body headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) and  charged with the management of criminal prosecutions in England and Wales. The CPS decides which cases that have been investigated by the police and other investigative organisations should be prosecuted. It determines the appropriate charges in more serious or complex cases, and advises Continue reading

Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP)

Glossary

The DPP is the head of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) and the third most senior public prosecutor after the Attorney General (AG) and the Solicitor General (SG). The current DPP is Alison Saunders. Website: www.cps.gov.uk/basic-page/director-public-prosecutions Continue reading

Gavel

Glossary

A small wooden hammer-like object used in American and some international courts as an instrument of case management. Though often featured in film, TV and cartoons relating to courts and as a stock image for law stories more generally, gavels are never used in English or Welsh courtrooms. Continue reading

Headnote

Glossary

A summary, appearing at the beginning of a full text law report, encapsulating as precisely as possible the essential facts of the case (where relevant) and the principle(s) of law which it decides. In some jurisdictions it is known as a Syllabus. See also, Article: What is a Law Report? Continue reading

Indictable offence

Glossary

An offence of a more serious type, which can be listed on an indictment and is usually tried in the Crown Court. The most serious offences are described as indictable-only, and must be tried in the Crown Court. Medium serious ones are described as triable ‘either-way’, and can be tried in the Magistrates Court unless Continue reading