Also known as Keywords. Descriptive words or phrases used to categorise the subject matter of a case for indexing purposes. Usually presented at the top of the report in the form of a main, second and third heading, which may be followed by additional words or phrases, separated by dashes, describing the critical issues in the case. The first, second and third level headings may then be used to slot the subject matter into a taxonomy of subject matter, eg in a printed index such as ICLR’s Consolidated Index series (see ‘Red Index’).