Reference and support materials for case law research and legal education.

The courts and tribunals of England and Wales


There are different types of court to deal with different jurisdictions (areas of law), and within each category there may be different levels of court, with higher courts hearing more serious cases or appeals from courts lower down in the system. The main different types of jurisdiction in England and Wales are as follows: Criminal Continue reading

The English legal system


The United Kingdom is divided into three main jurisdictions (or self-contained legal systems): England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland. Each jurisdiction has its own laws, court system, lawyers and judges. However: Laws that apply in one jurisdiction, particularly if they are derived from legislation (Acts of Parliament and Statutory Instruments) may apply equally, or very Continue reading

What do I call the judge?


What you call a judge depends on how senior they are. The following is a rough guide. Magistrates Call them ‘Sir’ or ‘Madam’ in court, or ‘Your Worship’ Address them in correspondence as ‘Mr/Mrs <Full Name> JP’ and begin the letter ‘Dear <Full Name> JP’ District judges Call them ‘Judge’ in court Address them in correspondence Continue reading

ICLR&D – Legal research and development


ICLR&D is a legal information research and development lab based in London at the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales, publisher of the authorised law reports of judgments decided in England and Wales. The Lab is a dedicated environment for exploring and improving the entire primary law ecosystem, with a particular focus Continue reading

The Busfield Prize


The ICLR Busfield Prize is an annual award in conjunction with City Law School. The prize is awarded to a BPTC student at the end of the academic year, who displays the best performance in the skill of Opinion Writing. It is a fitting memorial to Miss K. Busfield who bequeathed the funds in order to Continue reading

Court dress in England and Wales


Judges and lawyers in England and Wales wear different types of formal costume in court, including wigs and gowns. Judges Judges have been wearing special forms of headgear and robes since the Middle Ages. In the 14th century judges wore the same habit as Serjeants-at-Law, an order of elite lawyers from whom common law judges Continue reading